This page provides a summary of some of the technical terms and common acronyms used on this site and more broadly when discussing forest governance. The French translation of the English terms is shown alongside.
AD Avoided Deforestation
DE DE Déforestation évitée
Benefit sharing In forest governance, this refers to a commitment to channel returns - usually but not always monetary - back to communities affected by logging and other commercial concessions.
Partage de bénéfices Partage de bénéfices
CAN Climate Action Network (NGO network)
RAC-I Réseau Action Climat International (Réseau d’ONG)
CBD Convention on Biological Diversity - Signed by 150 government leaders at the 1992 Rio Earth Summit, the Convention on Biological Diversity is dedicated to promoting sustainable development.
CDB La Convention sur la diversité biologique - signée par 150 chefs de gouvernement lors du Sommet de Rio en 1992, la Convention sur la diversité biologique est dédiée à la promotion du développement durable
CCB Climate, Community and Biodiversity (Standards)
CCB Climat, communauté et biodiversité (Standards CCB)
CDM Clean Development Mechanism
MDP Mécanisme pour un développment propre
CERD International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination
CEDR Convention sur l’élimination de toutes les formes de discrimination raciale
CIFOR Center for International Forestry Research
CIFOR Centre de recherche forestière internationale
COICA Coordinating Body of Indigenous Organisations of the Amazon Basin
COICA Coordination des organisations autochtones du bassin amazonien
community forestry Refers to situations where a community plays a significant role in forest management and land use decision making, there are many forms and definitions.
La Foresterie communautaire
Convention on Biological Diversity Signed by 150 government leaders at the 1992 Rio Earth Summit, the Convention on Biological Diversity is dedicated to promoting sustainable development.
Convention sur la diversité biologique CDB
COP Conference of the Parties
CdP Conférence des parties
EFI Flegt Facility European Forest Institute (EFI) Facility which supports the European Union in its implementation of the EU FLEGT Action Plan.
Instrument FLEGT de l’EFI Instrument de l’Institut forestier européen (EFI)
EITI Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative
IETI Initiative renforcée pour la transparence des industries extractives
ERU Unité de réduction d’émissions
ERU Unité de réduction d’émissions
ESM External, Self-mandated (Civil Society) Monitoring. Self-mandated civil society campaigning organisations gathering information on forest governance. This monitoring forms part of NGO campaign work. NGO investigative work is therefore expected to feed into the planning of advocacy campaigns and can cover anything fitting the agenda of NGOs: law enforcement failures, impact of VPA on poverty and/or community rights, effects of industrial logging in rural development, respect of the rights of local communities, etc. Monitoring activity is self-mandated, and NGOs undertaking it do not operate under any form of contract or mandate.
SEA Surveillance externe (société civile) auto-mandatée
ETS EU Emission Trading Scheme
ETS Système européen d’échange de quotas d’émission
EUTR EU Timber Regulation. The EUTR is part of the EU's FLEGT Action Plan. It places a legal requirement on EU companies importing timber and other wood products to verify that those products have been legally produced and supplied.
RBUE Règlement sur le bois de l'Union européenne
FCPF Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (of the World Bank)
FCPF Fonds de Partenariat pour le Carbone Forestier (de la Banque mondiale)
FLEGT Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade. The Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan is an EU Action Plan agreed in 2003 that sets out a process and a package of measures through which the European Commission proposes to address the growing problem of illegal logging and related trade. For more information see What is FLEGT? and FLEGT Briefing note no.1
FLEGT Plan d’action sur l’application de la législation forestière, la gouvernance et les échanges commerciaux
FLEGT Action Plan EU Action Plan agreed in 2003 that sets out a process and a package of measures through which the European Commission proposes to address the growing problem of illegal logging and related trade. For more information see What is FLEGT? and FLEGT Briefing note no.1
Plan d’action sur l’application de la législation forestière, la gouvernance et les échanges commerciaux (FLEGT)
FLEGT Licence A licence given in the context of a VPA which refers to a shipment of legally produced timber or derived product(s) that are destined to the EU market.
FLEGT Licensing authority The authority that, in the context of a VPA, is designated the role of issuing and validating FLEGT licences.
Autorité délivrant les licences
FLEGT Partner Country Timber exporting (and often producing) country that has agreed a VPA with the EU or that has shown interest to engage in negotiations towards the conclusion of such an agreement.
Pays partenaire FLEGT
FPIC Free, prior, and Informed consent
CLIP consentement libre informé et préalable
FSC Forest Stewardship Council
FSC Forest Stewardship Council
G77 Group of 77 developing countries
G77 Groupe de 77 pays en voie de développement
G8 Group of 8 (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, the United States)
G8 Groupe de 8 pays (Canada, La France, Alemagne, Italie, Japon, Russie, Royaume Unis, Etats Unis
GEF Global Environment Facility
FEM Fonds pour l'environnement mondial
GFA Global Forest Alliance (proposal of the World Bank)
GFA Alliance mondiale pour les forêts (projet de la Banque mondiale)
GHG Greenhouse gas
GES Gaz à effet de serre
IAITPTF International Alliance of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples of the Tropical Forests
AIPATFT Alliance internationale des peuples autochtones et tribaux des forêts tropicales
IFC International Finance Corporation (of the World Bank Group)
SFI Société financière internationale (du Groupe de la Banque mondiale)
IFIPCC International Forum of Indigenous Peoples on Climate Change
FIPACC Forum international des peuples autochtones sur les changements climatiques
IIED International Institute for Environment and Developmen
IIED Institut international pour l’environnement et le développement
Independent Auditor (IA) Independent non-political body which assesses the implementation and effectiveness of the Legal Assurance System (LAS) as defined in a given FLEGT VPA. The IA has to show that it possesses the necessary skills and systems to ensure its independence and objectivity. Its tasks include – in current agreed VPAs: (1) conducting investigations on the work of the different actors at all levels of the forest, industry and supply chain; (2) identifying non-compliances and system failures; (3) assess the effectiveness of corrective actions undertaken; (4) assess the adequacy of data management systems and the accuracy of published information; (5) assess the effectiveness of license verification procedures on entry to the EU; and (6) report findings to the VPA Joint Implementation Committee. Note - The Ghana VPA uses the term Independent Monitor and third party monitor in different places, both to refer to the IA.
Auditeur indépendant (AI)
Independent Monitor Also called the Independent Observer. Independent organisation, often an NGO, undertaking analysis of governance, including malfunctions in forest law enforcement (field/ministries), causes of infractions, support to an improved State law enforcement system/sanctions. The IM works under an agreement with the host country government and its findings are provided to a Reporting Panel, typically chaired by the ministry responsible for forests in the country in question but including donor and other stakeholders. Note - The IM has been also called Independent Forest Monitor (IFM) and Independent Monitor of Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (IM-FLEG)
Observateur indépendant (OI) Observateur Indépendant du FLEG (OI-FLEG) Voir Observateur indépendant
Independent Observer (IO) Also called independent monitor. Independent organisation, often an NGO, undertaking analysis of governance, including malfunctions in forest law enforcement (field/ministries), causes of infractions, support to an improved State law enforcement system/sanctions. The IM works under an agreement with the host country government and its findings are provided to a Reporting Panel, typically chaired by the ministry responsible for forests in the country in question but including donor and other stakeholders. Note - The IM has been also called Independent Forest Monitor (IFM) and Independent Monitor of Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (IM-FLEG)
Observateur indépendante (OI)
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
GIEC Groupe d’experts intergouvernemental sur l’évolution du climat
LAS See Legality Assurance System
SVL Système de vérification de la légalité
Legality Assurance System System set up within the context of a VPA to trace legal timber and ensure it is not mixed with illegal timber before export. The LAS includes the definition of legally-produced timber, the control of the supply chain, the verification of both compliance with the legality definition and control of the supply chain and the issuance of FLEGT licenses. For more information see FLEGT briefing note no3Note - In some countries the LAS is known as TLAS (Timber Legality Assurance System).
Système de vérification de la légalité
Legality Definition Statement defining which set of laws of the FLEGT Partner Country will be enforced and monitored within the context of a VPA. The legality definition is one of the elements of the VPA Legality Assurance System, and it is outlined in form of a ‘grid’ in one of the annexes of the VPA. For more information see FLEGT briefing note no2
Définition de la légalité Définition de la légalité (dans l’APV)
Legality grid Matrix which defines the regulatory references that justify the requirement, as well as indicators and verifiers to clarify the laws whose enforcement will be monitored within the context of a VPA. The legality grid is the transcription of the VPA Legality Definition, and it is outlined in one of the annexes of the VPA.
Grille de légalité Grille de légalité (dans l’APV)
LULUCF Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry
LULUCF Utilisation des terres, changement de l’affection des terres et foresterie
MOP Meeting of the Parties
RdP Réunion des parties (MOP)
NCAS National Carbon Accounting System (of Australia)
NCAS National Carbon Accounting System (Australie)
ODA Official Development Assistance
APD Aide publique au développement
ODI Overseas Development Institute
ODI Overseas Development Institute
PCF Prototype Carbon Fund (of the World Bank)
PCF Fonds prototype pour le carbone (de la Banque mondiale)
PES Payment for Ecosystem Services, or sometimes refers to 'Payment for Environmental Services'.
RSE Rémunération des services environnementaux
PPP Public procurement policies
Politique de marchés publics
RED Reduced Emissions from Deforestation
RED Réduction des émissions dues à la déforestation
REDD Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation
REDD Réduction des émissions dues à la déforestation et à la dégradation
SBSTA Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (of the UNFCCC)
SBSTA Organe subsidiaire de conseil scientifique et technologique (de la CCNUCC)
Supply chain A timber supply chain is a system of organisations, people, technology, activities, information and resources involved in moving timber and timber products from the moment the timber is harvested to the moment it is sold, including transformation and transport.
Supporting Measures Section of a VPA outlining the actions that will have to be undertaken, in parallel to setting up the Legal Assurance System, to ensure the VPA is effectively operationalised. Supporting measures have included, in finalised VPAs, issues such as the reinforcement of the capacity of stakeholders involved in forest management or legal reform processes.
Mesures d’appui Mesures d’appui (dans l’APV)
TFAP Tropical Forestry Action Plan (previously of World Bank and FAO)
PAFT Plan d’action forestier tropical (antérieurement de la Banque mondiale et de la FAO)
TLAS Timber Legality Assurance System– See Legal Assurance System (LAS).
TLAS Système de vérification de la légalité du bois
UNDP United Nations for Development Cooperation
PNUD Programme des nations unies pour le développement
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
CCNUCC Convention-cadre des Nations Unies sur les changements climatiques
VER Verified Emission Reduction
VER Unité de réduction vérfiée/volontaire
Verification (of legality) Means of assessing that the timber to be licensed as ‘legal’ is in compliance with all legal requirements either in the forest or within the supply chain. In the case of a FLEGT VPA, verification aims to check that “the requirements of the legality definition and the supply chain [as defined in the LAS] have been met so this information can be presented to the Licensing Authority to allow the license to be issued […] Verification is carried out by a government, market participant or third-party organisation, or some combination of these, which has adequate resources, management systems and skilled and trained personnel, as well as robust and effective mechanisms to control conflicts of interest.” (European Commission (2007) FLEGT Briefing Note 5 - Legality assurance systems: Requirements for verification) For more information see FLEGT briefing note no. 5
Vérification (de la légalité)
VPA Voluntary Partnership Agreement
APV Accord de partenariat volontaire
WRM World Rainforest Movement
WRM World Rainforest Movement (Mouvement mondial pour les forêts tropicales)