AD Avoided deforestation
CAN Climate Action Network (NGO network)
CBD Convention on Biological Diversity
CCB Climate, Community and Biodiversity (Standards)
CDM Clean Development Mechanism
CER Certified Emissions Reduction
CERD Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination
CIFOR Center for International Forestry Research
COICA Coordinating Body of Indigenous Organisations of the Amazon Basin
COP Conference of the Parties
CR Compensated reduction
CRN Coalition for Rainforest Nations
EFI FLEGT Facility - European Forest Institute (EFI) Facility which supports the European Union in its implementation of the EU FLEGT Action Plan.
EITI Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative
ERU Emissions Reduction Unit
ESM See External, Self-mandated (Civil Society) Monitoring
ETS EU Emission Trading Scheme
EUTR European Union Timber Reglementation
External, Self-mandated (Civil Society) Monitoring (ESM) - Self-mandated civil society campaigning organisations gathering information on forest governance. This monitoring forms part of NGO campaign work. NGO investigative work is therefore expected to feed into the planning of advocacy campaigns and can cover anything fitting the agenda of NGOs: law enforcement failures, impact of VPA on poverty and/or community rights, effects of industrial logging in rural development, respect of the rights of local communities, etc. Monitoring activity is self-mandated, and NGOs undertaking it do not operate under any form of contract or mandate.
FCPF Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (of the World Bank)
FLEGT Licensing authority - The authority that, in the context of a VPA, is designated the role of issuing and validating FLEGT licences.
FLEGT Partner Country - Timber exporting (and often producing) country that has agreed a VPA with the EU or that has shown interest to engage in negotiations towards the conclusion of such an agreement.
FLEGT See Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan
FLEGT Licence - A licence given in the context of a VPA which refers to a shipment of legally produced timber or derived product(s) that are destined to the EU market.
Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan - EU Action Plan agreed in 2003 that sets out a process and a package of measures through which the European Commission proposes to address the growing problem of illegal logging and related trade. For more information see What is FLEGT? and FLEGT Briefing note no.1
FPIC Free, prior and informed consent
FPP Forest Peoples Programme
FRA Forest Resource Assessment (of the FAO)
FSC Forest Stewardship Council
G77 Group of 77 developing countries
G8 Group of 8 (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, the United States)
GEF Global Environment Facility
GFA Global Forest Alliance (proposal of the World Bank)
GHG Greenhouse gas
IA– See Independent Auditor
IAITPTF International Alliance of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples of the Tropical Forests
IFC International Finance Corporation (of the World Bank Group)
IFIPCC International Forum of Indigenous Peoples on Climate Change
IIED International Institute for Environment and Development
IM – SeeIndependent Monitor
Independent Auditor (IA) - Independent non-political body which assesses the implementation and effectiveness of the Legal Assurance System (LAS) as defined in a given FLEGT VPA. The IA has to show that it possesses the necessary skills and systems to ensure its independence and objectivity. Its tasks include – in current agreed VPAs: (1) conducting investigations on the work of the different actors at all levels of the forest, industry and supply chain; (2) identifying non-compliances and system failures; (3) assess the effectiveness of corrective actions undertaken; (4) assess the adequacy of data management systems and the accuracy of published information; (5) assess the effectiveness of license verification procedures on entry to the EU; and (6) report findings to the VPA Joint Implementation Committee. Note - The Ghana VPA uses the term Independent Monitor and third party monitor in different places, both to refer to the IA.
Independent Monitor (IM) / Independent Observer (IO)- Independent organisation, often an NGO, undertaking analysis of governance, including malfunctions in forest law enforcement (field/ministries), causes of infractions, support to an improved State law enforcement system/sanctions. The IM works under an agreement with the host country government and its findings are provided to a Reporting Panel, typically chaired by the ministry responsible for forests in the country in question but including donor and other stakeholders. Note - The IM has been also called Independent Forest Monitor (IFM) and Independent Monitor of Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (IM-FLEG)
IO – Independent Observer, see Independent Monitor
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
LAS – See Legal Assurance System
Legal Assurance System (LAS) System set up within the context of a VPA to trace legal timber and ensure it is not mixed with illegal timber before export. The LAS includes the definition of legally-produced timber, the control of the supply chain, the verification of both compliance with the legality definition and control of the supply chain and the issuance of FLEGT licenses. For more information see FLEGT briefing note no3Note - In some countries the LAS is known as TLAS (Timber Legality Assurance System).
Legality Definition -Statement defining which set of laws of the FLEGT Partner Country will be enforced and monitored within the context of a VPA. The legality definition is one of the elements of the VPA Legality Assurance System, and it is outlined in form of a ‘grid’ in one of the annexes of the VPA. For more information see FLEGT briefing note no2
Legality grid - Matrix which defines the regulatory references that justify the requirement, as well as indicators and verifiers to clarify the laws whose enforcement will be monitored within the context of a VPA. The legality grid is the transcription of the VPA Legality Definition, and it is outlined in one of the annexes of the VPA.
License – See FLEGT Licence
Licensing authority– See FLEGT Licensing authority
LULUCF Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry
MOP Meeting of the Parties
NCAS National Carbon Accounting System (of Australia)
ODA Official Development Assistance
ODI Overseas Development Institute
Partner Country –See FLEGT Partner Country
PCF Prototype Carbon Fund (of the World Bank)
PCF Prototype Carbon Fund (of the World Bank)
PES Payment for Environmental Services
PPP Public procurement policies
RED Reduced Emissions from Deforestation
REDD Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation
SBSTA Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (of the UNFCCC)
Supply chain - A timber supply chain is a system of organisations, people, technology, activities, information and resources involved in moving timber and timber products from the moment the timber is harvested to the moment it is sold, including transformation and transport.
Supporting Measures - Section of a VPA outlining the actions that will have to be undertaken, in parallel to setting up the Legal Assurance System, to ensure the VPA is effectively operationalised. Supporting measures have included, in finalised VPAs, issues such as the reinforcement of the capacity of stakeholders involved in forest management or legal reform processes.
TFAP Tropical Forestry Action Plan (previously of World Bank and FAO)
Timber Legality Assurance System (TLAS)– See Legal Assurance System (LAS).
UNDP United Nations for Development Cooperation
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
VER - Verified Emission Reduction
Verification (of legality) - Means of assessing that the timber to be licensed as ‘legal’ is in compliance with all legal requirements either in the forest or within the supply chain. In the case of a FLEGT VPA, verification aims to check that “the requirements of the legality definition and the supply chain [as defined in the LAS] have been met so this information can be presented to the Licensing Authority to allow the license to be issued […] Verification is carried out by a government, market participant or third-party organisation, or some combination of these, which has adequate resources, management systems and skilled and trained personnel, as well as robust and effective mechanisms to control conflicts of interest.” (European Commission (2007) FLEGT Briefing Note 5 - Legality assurance systems: Requirements for verification) For more information see FLEGT briefing note no. 5
Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) - Bilateral trade agreements between the European Union and timber exporting (and producing) countries (the FLEGT Partner Country). VPAs aim to ensure that timber exported from a given FLEGT Partner Country to the EU is legal. VPAs are the cornerstone of the EU FLEGT Action Plan.
VPA Legality Definition – See Legality Definition
VPA Supporting Measures – See Supporting Measures
VPA – See Voluntary Partnership Agreement
VPA Legality grid – See Legality Grid
WRM World Rainforest Movement