Glossaire

Cette page fournit un résumé de certains termes techniques et acronymes communs utilisés sur ce site et, plus largement, lors de l'examen de la gouvernance forestière.

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A

AIPATFT Alliance internationale des peuples autochtones et tribaux des forêts tropicales

IAITPTF International Alliance of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples of the Tropical Forests

APD Aide publique au développement

ODA Official Development Assistance

APV Accord de partenariat volontaire

VPA Voluntary Partnership Agreement

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Auditeur indépendant (AI)

Independent Auditor (IA) Independent non-political body which assesses the implementation and effectiveness of the Legal Assurance System (LAS) as defined in a given FLEGT VPA. The IA has to show that it possesses the necessary skills and systems to ensure its independence and objectivity. Its tasks include – in current agreed VPAs: (1) conducting investigations on the work of the different actors at all levels of the forest, industry and supply chain; (2) identifying non-compliances and system failures; (3) assess the effectiveness of corrective actions undertaken; (4) assess the adequacy of data management systems and the accuracy of published information; (5) assess the effectiveness of license verification procedures on entry to the EU; and (6) report findings to the VPA Joint Implementation Committee. Note - The Ghana VPA uses the term Independent Monitor and third party monitor in different places, both to refer to the IA.

Autorité délivrant les licences Autorité délivrant les licences FLEGT

FLEGT Licensing authority The authority that, in the context of a VPA, is designated the role of issuing and validating FLEGT licences.

C

CCB Climat, communauté et biodiversité (Standards CCB)

CCB Climate, Community and Biodiversity (Standards)

CCNUCC Convention-cadre des Nations Unies sur les changements climatiques

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UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

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CDB La Convention sur la diversité biologique - signée par 150 chefs de gouvernement lors du Sommet de Rio en 1992, la Convention sur la diversité biologique est dédiée à la promotion du développement durable

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CBD Convention on Biological Diversity - Signed by 150 government leaders at the 1992 Rio Earth Summit, the Convention on Biological Diversity is dedicated to promoting sustainable development.

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CdP Conférence des parties

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COP Conference of the Parties

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CEDR Convention sur l’élimination de toutes les formes de discrimination raciale

CERD International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination

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Chaîne d’approvisionnement

Supply chain A timber supply chain is a system of organisations, people, technology, activities, information and resources involved in moving timber and timber products from the moment the timber is harvested to the moment it is sold, including transformation and transport.

CIFOR Centre de recherche forestière internationale

CIFOR Center for International Forestry Research

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CLIP consentement libre informé et préalable

FPIC Free, prior, and Informed consent

COICA Coordination des organisations autochtones du bassin amazonien

COICA Coordinating Body of Indigenous Organisations of the Amazon Basin

Convention sur la diversité biologique CDB

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Convention on Biological Diversity Signed by 150 government leaders at the 1992 Rio Earth Summit, the Convention on Biological Diversity is dedicated to promoting sustainable development.

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D

DE DE Déforestation évitée

AD Avoided Deforestation

DE Déforestation évitée

Définition de la légalité Définition de la légalité (dans l’APV)

Legality Definition Statement defining which set of laws of the FLEGT Partner Country will be enforced and monitored within the context of a VPA. The legality definition is one of the elements of the VPA Legality Assurance System, and it is outlined in form of a ‘grid’ in one of the annexes of the VPA. For more information see FLEGT briefing note no2

E

ERU Unité de réduction d’émissions

ERU Unité de réduction d’émissions

ETS EU Emission Trading Scheme

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ETS Système européen d’échange de quotas d’émission

F

FCPF Fonds de Partenariat pour le Carbone Forestier (de la Banque mondiale)

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FCPF Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (of the World Bank)

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FEM Fonds pour l'environnement mondial

GEF Global Environment Facility

FIPACC Forum international des peuples autochtones sur les changements climatiques

IFIPCC International Forum of Indigenous Peoples on Climate Change

FLEGT Plan d’action sur l’application de la législation forestière, la gouvernance et les échanges commerciaux

FLEGT Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade. The Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan is an EU Action Plan agreed in 2003 that sets out a process and a package of measures through which the European Commission proposes to address the growing problem of illegal logging and related trade. For more information see What is FLEGT? and FLEGT Briefing note no.1

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FPC Fonds prototype pour le carbone (de la Banque mondiale)

PCF Prototype Carbon Fund (of the World Bank)

FSC Forest Stewardship Council

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FSC Forest Stewardship Council

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G

G77 Groupe de 77 pays en voie de développement

G77 Group of 77 developing countries

G8 Groupe de 8 pays (Canada, La France, Alemagne, Italie, Japon, Russie, Royaume Unis, Etats Unis

G8 Group of 8 (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, the United States)

GES Gaz à effet de serre

GHG Greenhouse gas

GFA Alliance mondiale pour les forêts (projet de la Banque mondiale)

GFA Global Forest Alliance (proposal of the World Bank)

Grille de légalité Grille de légalité (dans l’APV)

Legality grid Matrix which defines the regulatory references that justify the requirement, as well as indicators and verifiers to clarify the laws whose enforcement will be monitored within the context of a VPA. The legality grid is the transcription of the VPA Legality Definition, and it is outlined in one of the annexes of the VPA.

I

IETI Initiative renforcée pour la transparence des industries extractives

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EITI Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative

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IIED Institut international pour l’environnement et le développement

IIED International Institute for Environment and Developmen

Instrument FLEGT de l’EFI Instrument de l’Institut forestier européen (EFI)

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EFI Flegt Facility European Forest Institute (EFI) Facility which supports the European Union in its implementation of the EU FLEGT Action Plan.

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IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

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GIEC Groupe d’experts intergouvernemental sur l’évolution du climat

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L

La Foresterie communautaire

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community forestry Refers to situations where a community plays a significant role in forest management and land use decision making, there are many forms and definitions.

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Licence FLEGT

FLEGT Licence A licence given in the context of a VPA which refers to a shipment of legally produced timber or derived product(s) that are destined to the EU market.

LULUCF Utilisation des terres, changement de l’affection des terres et foresterie

LULUCF Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry

M

Marché domestique

Domestic Market

MDP Mécanisme pour un développment propre

CDM Clean Development Mechanism

Mesures d’appui Mesures d’appui (dans l’APV)

Supporting Measures Section of a VPA outlining the actions that will have to be undertaken, in parallel to setting up the Legal Assurance System, to ensure the VPA is effectively operationalised. Supporting measures have included, in finalised VPAs, issues such as the reinforcement of the capacity of stakeholders involved in forest management or legal reform processes.

N

NCAS National Carbon Accounting System (Australie)

NCAS National Carbon Accounting System (of Australia)

O

Observateur indépendant (OI) Observateur Indépendant du FLEG (OI-FLEG) Voir Observateur indépendant

Independent Monitor Also called the Independent Observer. Independent organisation, often an NGO, undertaking analysis of governance, including malfunctions in forest law enforcement (field/ministries), causes of infractions, support to an improved State law enforcement system/sanctions. The IM works under an agreement with the host country government and its findings are provided to a Reporting Panel, typically chaired by the ministry responsible for forests in the country in question but including donor and other stakeholders. Note - The IM has been also called Independent Forest Monitor (IFM) and Independent Monitor of Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (IM-FLEG)

Observation indépendante des forêts (OIF)

Independent Forest Monitoring (IFM)

Observations externes

Independent observation

ODI Overseas Development Institute

ODI Overseas Development Institute

P

PAFT Plan d’action forestier tropical (antérieurement de la Banque mondiale et de la FAO)

TFAP Tropical Forestry Action Plan (previously of World Bank and FAO)

Partage de bénéfices Partage de bénéfices

Benefit sharing In forest governance, this refers to a commitment to channel returns - usually but not always monetary - back to communities affected by logging and other commercial concessions.

Pays partenaire FLEGT

FLEGT Partner Country Timber exporting (and often producing) country that has agreed a VPA with the EU or that has shown interest to engage in negotiations towards the conclusion of such an agreement.

Plan d’action sur l’application de la législation forestière, la gouvernance et les échanges commerciaux (FLEGT)

FLEGT Action Plan EU Action Plan agreed in 2003 that sets out a process and a package of measures through which the European Commission proposes to address the growing problem of illegal logging and related trade. For more information see What is FLEGT? and FLEGT Briefing note no.1

PNUD Programme des nations unies pour le développement

UNDP United Nations for Development Cooperation

Politique de marchés publics

PPP Public procurement policies

R

RAC-I Réseau Action Climat International (Réseau d’ONG)

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CAN Climate Action Network (NGO network)

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RBUE Règlement sur le bois de l'Union européenne

EUTR EU Timber Regulation. The EUTR is part of the EU's FLEGT Action Plan. It places a legal requirement on EU companies importing timber and other wood products to verify that those products have been legally produced and supplied.

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RdP Réunion des parties (MOP)

MOP Meeting of the Parties

RED Réduction des émissions dues à la déforestation

RED Reduced Emissions from Deforestation

REDD Réduction des émissions dues à la déforestation et à la dégradation

REDD Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation

RSE Rémunération des services environnementaux

PES Payment for Ecosystem Services, or sometimes refers to 'Payment for Environmental Services'.

S

SBSTA Organe subsidiaire de conseil scientifique et technologique (de la CCNUCC)

SBSTA Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (of the UNFCCC)

SEA Surveillance externe (société civile) auto-mandatée

ESM External, Self-mandated (Civil Society) Monitoring. Self-mandated civil society campaigning organisations gathering information on forest governance. This monitoring forms part of NGO campaign work. NGO investigative work is therefore expected to feed into the planning of advocacy campaigns and can cover anything fitting the agenda of NGOs: law enforcement failures, impact of VPA on poverty and/or community rights, effects of industrial logging in rural development, respect of the rights of local communities, etc. Monitoring activity is self-mandated, and NGOs undertaking it do not operate under any form of contract or mandate.

SFI Société financière internationale (du Groupe de la Banque mondiale)

IFC International Finance Corporation (of the World Bank Group)

SVL Système de vérification de la légalité

LAS See Legality Assurance System

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Système de vérification de la légalité

Legality Assurance System System set up within the context of a VPA to trace legal timber and ensure it is not mixed with illegal timber before export. The LAS includes the definition of legally-produced timber, the control of the supply chain, the verification of both compliance with the legality definition and control of the supply chain and the issuance of FLEGT licenses. For more information see FLEGT briefing note no3Note - In some countries the LAS is known as TLAS (Timber Legality Assurance System).

T

TLAS Système de vérification de la légalité du bois

TLAS Timber Legality Assurance System– See Legal Assurance System (LAS).

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V

VER Unité de réduction vérfiée/volontaire

VER Verified Emission Reduction

Vérification (de la légalité)

Verification (of legality) Means of assessing that the timber to be licensed as ‘legal’ is in compliance with all legal requirements either in the forest or within the supply chain. In the case of a FLEGT VPA, verification aims to check that “the requirements of the legality definition and the supply chain [as defined in the LAS] have been met so this information can be presented to the Licensing Authority to allow the license to be issued […] Verification is carried out by a government, market participant or third-party organisation, or some combination of these, which has adequate resources, management systems and skilled and trained personnel, as well as robust and effective mechanisms to control conflicts of interest.” (European Commission (2007) FLEGT Briefing Note 5 - Legality assurance systems: Requirements for verification) For more information see FLEGT briefing note no. 5

W

WRM World Rainforest Movement (Mouvement mondial pour les forêts tropicales)

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WRM World Rainforest Movement

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